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As the rising phase reaches its peak, voltage-gated Na channels are inactivated whereas voltage-gated K channels are activated, resulting in a net outward movement of K ions, which repolarizes the membrane potential towards the resting membrane potential.Repolarization of the membrane potential continues, resulting in an undershoot phase or absolute refractory period.The undershoot phase occurs because unlike voltage-gated sodium channels, voltage-gated potassium channels inactivate much more slowly.Nevertheless, as more voltage-gated K channels become inactivated, the membrane potential recovers to its normal resting steady state..Cellular neuroscience is the study of neurons at a cellular level.This includes morphology and physiological properties of single neurons.As Na ions enter the cell, the membrane potential is further depolarized, and more voltage-gated sodium channels are activated.

In the human brain alone, there are over eighty billion neurons.

There are two families of receptors: ionotropic and metabotropic receptors.

Ionotropic receptors are a combination of a receptor and an ion channel.

In neuroscience, synaptic plasticity is the ability of synapses to strengthen or weaken over time, in response to increases or decreases in their activity.

Since memories are postulated to be represented by vastly interconnected networks of synapses in the brain, synaptic plasticity is one of the important neurochemical foundations of learning and memory (see Hebbian theory).

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