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In other plant species galls may be massive accumulations of fleshy tissue more than an inch in diameter.
Some ectoparasitic nematodes (nematodes that live outside the plant in the soil), such as sting and stubby-root nematodes, may cause root tips to swell.
Nodules are loosely attached to the root, while root-knot galls originate from infection at the center of the root, so they are an integral part of the root.
They can be caused by various parasites, from fungi and bacteria, to insects and mites.
Gall-inducing insects include gall wasps, gall midges, gall flies, Agromyzidae aphids (such as Melaphis chinensis, Pemphigus spyrothecae, and Pemphigus betae), scale insects, goldenrod gall fly, psyllids and weevils.
Many rust fungi induce gall formation, including western gall rust, which infects a variety of pine trees and cedar-apple rust.
Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Pseudomonas savastanoi are examples of gall-causing bacteria.
Gall forming virus was found on rice plants in central Thailand in 1979 and named rice gall dwarf.